Romania

Romania

The republic is the from of government in Romania.
National currency: "Leu".
Bucharest Municipality is the capital of Romania.
Official language: Romanian.

  • Romania is situated in southeastern part of Central Europe inside and outside of the Carpathians Arch, on the Danube (1075 km.) lower course and has exit to the Black Sea, being placed at a distance ranging between 1050 km. and 2800 km. against the continent extremities.
  • Romanian territory is developing on 4037'59" northern latitude being placed at the crossing of the parallel 450N with the meridian 250E.
  • The exit to the sea enables the connections with the countries in the Black Sea basin, in the Mediterranean Sea basin and by means of this with all the countries in the world.
  • Romania's relief consists of three major levels namely: the highest of the Carpathians, the middle that corresponds to the Sub-Carpathians, to the hills and to the plateaus and the lowest of the plains, meadows and Danube Delta. Main features of relief units are: proportionality (31% mountains, 36% hills and plateaus, 33% plains and meadows), concentric display in amphitheatre, of the relief major levels.
  • Romania's climate is temperate-continental of transition, with oceanic influences from the west, mediterranean ones from southwest and continental-excessive ones from the northeast. Average yearly temperature is latitudinal different, 80C in the north and 110C in the south and altitudinal with values of -2,50C in the mountain areas (Omu peak- Bucegi massif) and 11,60C in the plain (Zimnicea town - Teleorman county). Yearly precipitations decrease in intensity from west to east, from 600 mm to 500 mm in the Romanian Plain and under 400 mm in Dobrogea and in the mountain areas they reach 1000-1400 mm.
  • Romanian running waters are radially displayed, most of them having the springs in the Carpathians. Their main collector is the Danube River, which crosses the country in the south on 1075km length and flows into the Black Sea. In the mountain areas there are numerous glacial lakes and recently, anthropic lakes which turn into account the rivers hydro-energetic potential.
  • The vegetation is determined by the relief and by pedo-climatic elements, being displayed in floors. Mountain areas are covered by coniferous forests (especially spruce fir), mixture forests (beech, fir-tree, spruce fir) and beech forests. Higher peaks are covered by alpine lawns and bushes of dwarf pine, juniper, bilberry a.s.o. In the hills and plateaus there are plateaus there are broad-leaved forests, prevailing beech, common oak or durmast oak; the main forests species often met on low hills and high plains are Quercus cerris and Quercus frainetto. The steppe and silvosteppe vegetation, which covered the areas of low humidity in Dobrogea Plateau, Romanian Plain, Moldova Plateau and Western Plain has been mostly replaced by agricultural crops.
  • Romani's fauna is grouped by different areas according to each species biotype. Relict elements as black goat (chamois) and mountain vulture occur in the alpine area. In Carpathian forests live various animals: bear, buck, lynx, wolf, wild boar, roebuck, squirrel and several species of birds. In a few mountain areas are still met both mountain cock and birch cock. In hill and field areas there are hares, moles, hedgehogs, various birds, lizards, batrachians a.s.o.; rodent animals as gopher and hamster are characteristic for the steppe areas. Water fauna is represented especially by trout in the mountain waters (huck which was mostly spread in the past has become rare); dace and barbel in the hill areas, carp, perch, pike, waller, crucian in the field areas and Danube Delta; sturgeon species are also met in the marine territorial waters and on the inferior Danube.
  • Romania's useful minerals resources are various. Among the main useful mineral resources we can mentions: crude oil, with old exploitation traditions; natural gas; coal, especially coking pitcoal, lignite and brown coal; ferous and nonferous ores, gold, silver and bauxite ore deposits; great reserves of salt as well as numerous nonmetalliferous resources. A special category of subsoil riches is constituted by over 2000 mineral water springs, with consumption and medical treatments valences.
















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