republic is the from of government in Romania.
National currency: "Leu".
Bucharest Municipality is the capital of Romania.
Official language: Romanian.
Romania is situated in southeastern
part of Central Europe inside and outside of the Carpathians
Arch, on the Danube (1075 km.) lower course and has exit to
the Black Sea, being placed at a distance ranging between
1050 km. and 2800 km. against the continent extremities.
Romanian territory is developing on 4037'59" northern
latitude being placed at the crossing of the parallel 450N
with the meridian 250E.
The exit to the sea enables the connections with the countries
in the Black Sea basin, in the Mediterranean Sea basin and
by means of this with all the countries in the world.
Romania's relief consists of three major levels namely:
the highest of the Carpathians, the middle that corresponds
to the Sub-Carpathians, to the hills and to the plateaus and
the lowest of the plains, meadows and Danube Delta. Main features
of relief units are: proportionality (31% mountains, 36% hills
and plateaus, 33% plains and meadows), concentric display
in amphitheatre, of the relief major levels.
Romania's climate is temperate-continental of transition,
with oceanic influences from the west, mediterranean ones
from southwest and continental-excessive ones from the northeast.
Average yearly temperature is latitudinal different, 80C in
the north and 110C in the south and altitudinal with values
of -2,50C in the mountain areas (Omu peak- Bucegi massif)
and 11,60C in the plain (Zimnicea town - Teleorman county).
Yearly precipitations decrease in intensity from west to east,
from 600 mm to 500 mm in the Romanian Plain and under 400
mm in Dobrogea and in the mountain areas they reach 1000-1400
Romanian running waters are radially displayed, most of
them having the springs in the Carpathians. Their main collector
is the Danube River, which crosses the country in the south
on 1075km length and flows into the Black Sea. In the mountain
areas there are numerous glacial lakes and recently, anthropic
lakes which turn into account the rivers hydro-energetic potential.
The vegetation is determined by the relief and by pedo-climatic
elements, being displayed in floors. Mountain areas are covered
by coniferous forests (especially spruce fir), mixture forests
(beech, fir-tree, spruce fir) and beech forests. Higher peaks
are covered by alpine lawns and bushes of dwarf pine, juniper,
bilberry a.s.o. In the hills and plateaus there are plateaus
there are broad-leaved forests, prevailing beech, common oak
or durmast oak; the main forests species often met on low
hills and high plains are Quercus cerris and Quercus frainetto.
The steppe and silvosteppe vegetation, which covered the areas
of low humidity in Dobrogea Plateau, Romanian Plain, Moldova
Plateau and Western Plain has been mostly replaced by agricultural
Romani's fauna is grouped by different areas according to
each species biotype. Relict elements as black goat (chamois)
and mountain vulture occur in the alpine area. In Carpathian
forests live various animals: bear, buck, lynx, wolf, wild
boar, roebuck, squirrel and several species of birds. In a
few mountain areas are still met both mountain cock and birch
cock. In hill and field areas there are hares, moles, hedgehogs,
various birds, lizards, batrachians a.s.o.; rodent animals
as gopher and hamster are characteristic for the steppe areas.
Water fauna is represented especially by trout in the mountain
waters (huck which was mostly spread in the past has become
rare); dace and barbel in the hill areas, carp, perch, pike,
waller, crucian in the field areas and Danube Delta; sturgeon
species are also met in the marine territorial waters and
on the inferior Danube.
Romania's useful minerals resources are various. Among the
main useful mineral resources we can mentions: crude oil,
with old exploitation traditions; natural gas; coal, especially
coking pitcoal, lignite and brown coal; ferous and nonferous
ores, gold, silver and bauxite ore deposits; great reserves
of salt as well as numerous nonmetalliferous resources. A
special category of subsoil riches is constituted by over
2000 mineral water springs, with consumption and medical treatments